You could create an arrangement for any size vase, the larger the vase, the more flowers and greens to use. For Christmas time, use red, white and maybe even green flowers (like green button mums). Also choose from a variety of greens and evergreens out there. Accent a red rose in a bud vase with some baby's breath and cedar. Deep red alstroemeria are especially beautiful. There are many other flowers that would be perfect to use for Christmas arrangements, the link below will take you to a complete list of flowers, foliage, and evergreens for Christmas floral design.
Many people feel flowers are not something within their reach because they see them as an expensive extravagance. While there are many flowers that may outside of your budget because they are more rare or out of season, if you choose flowers that are readily available and fairly common, you will find them an affordable luxury and one that will brighten your day and your home. To keep costs to a minimum, you will want to talk to a florist about what flowers meet your needs without breaking the bank. They will know plenty about seasonal and more affordable flowers and arrangements and how best to care for them.