You could create an arrangement for any size vase, the larger the vase, the more flowers and greens to use. For Christmas time, use red, white and maybe even green flowers (like green button mums). Also choose from a variety of greens and evergreens out there. Accent a red rose in a bud vase with some baby's breath and cedar. Deep red alstroemeria are especially beautiful. There are many other flowers that would be perfect to use for Christmas arrangements, the link below will take you to a complete list of flowers, foliage, and evergreens for Christmas floral design.
Designers of contemporary collections often combine flowers with fruits to make their arrangements good enough to eat, an abundance of fragrant sweet peas displayed in a vase full of strawberries give a terrific look to any summer dinner party. Slices of limes and lemons work wonderfully with white roses to give a clean crisp effect. Miniature trees, stripped of their leaves and replaced by single heads of pastel shades of asters provide an interesting focal point for a large room.