You could create an arrangement for any size vase, the larger the vase, the more flowers and greens to use. For Christmas time, use red, white and maybe even green flowers (like green button mums). Also choose from a variety of greens and evergreens out there. Accent a red rose in a bud vase with some baby's breath and cedar. Deep red alstroemeria are especially beautiful. There are many other flowers that would be perfect to use for Christmas arrangements, the link below will take you to a complete list of flowers, foliage, and evergreens for Christmas floral design.
Flowers are my passion and when I was asked to set a table for a benefits banquet using a floral centerpiece and eight place settings I found the Victorian Era theme fit my love of flowers. This era was named for Queen Victoria who ruled England from 1837 to 1901, whose enthusiasm for flower designs was a time of elegance for all things flower. They decorated not only with flower arrangements in a vase but also with flowers on plates, tea pots and in pictures for the walls, and their use of flowers was displayed in all their treasures. The Victorian women would often wear flowers in their hair, on their arm or around their neck. Their love of flowers was a way of expressing affection, and was given to friends and lovers according to the message they wanted to express, for the Victorians knew the meaning of flowers. Their floral arrangements were, formal, proper, opulent, lavish and showy. Aristocratic members of society would exhibit wealth by creating large, excessive, luxurious and often overdone flower arrangements.